Risk Factor and Health Outcome
A clinical pediatric nurse has noticed a rise in childhood cancer diagnoses among the Hispanic population served by the local clinic. The nurse is concerned about this increase in cancer incidence in the patient population and turns to the literature to explore current research on this topic. The nurse finds through the reading that there appears to be an association between parental smoking and childhood cancer and wonders if this could be the cause of the rise in cases.
This type of suspected association between a risk factor (exposure) and a particular outcome (childhood cancer) can be evaluated using an observational study design. This week, you were introduced to observational study designs used in epidemiology. For this Discussion, you will identify an epidemiologic association of interest (e.g., smoking and lung cancer, obesity and heart disease, hormone replacement/modification therapy and breast cancer) and determine an appropriate observational study design for exploring that association.
NURS 8310 – Risk Factor and Health Outcome
- Review the different types of observational study designs presented in the Learning Resources:
- ecologic- the unit of the analysis is the group-one that examines a group as a unit of analysis. It differs from study designs which use an individual as the unit of analysis. analytic study
- cross-sectional, -prevalence studies, exposure and disease measures are obtained at the level of the individual. selecting a sample of subjects (N) and are not required to include assessment of exposure and disease. Descriptive study
- case-control- type pf analytic study of “persons with the disease or another outcome variable of interest and is suitable control group, comparison group reference group. descriptive study
- cohort- analytic study
- Carefully examine the characteristics, strengths, and limitations of each design.
- Consider an association between a risk factor and a particular health outcome that is of interest to you. Then, select the observational study design you think would be the most appropriate for exploring this association.
- Consider how using observational study designs can lead to improvements in population health.
Post a cohesive response that addresses the following:
- Identify the association between the risk factor and health outcome you selected, and suggest which observational study design you feel is most appropriate for examining that association.
- Support your selection of the observational design, noting its strengths and limitations for addressing the health problem.
- What might you be able to learn by using your selected study design that might lead to improvements in population health? Support your response with evidence from the literature
Your Discussion Board postings should be written in standard edited English and follow APA style for format and grammar as closely as possible given the constraints of the online platform. Be sure to support the postings with specific citations from this week’s Learning Resources as well as resources available through the Walden University online databases. Refer to the Essential Guide to APA Style for Walden Students to ensure your in-text citations and reference list are correct.